Shock: "Shock" is a serious medical condition in which poor blood flow to body tissues causes poor oxygen delivery and subsequent metabolic damage to the organs, oftentimes irreversible and leading to death. Common causes of poor blood flow are bleeding and heart failure. Because there is presently no way to directly monitor diminished blood flow, doctors monitor blood pressure, which is not a particularly good indicator of impending shock.  As is well understood by medical practitioners, a drop in blood pressure is a lagging indicator because the body automatically responds to low blood flow by restricting flow to non-vital organs to maintain blood pressure and flow to the heart and brain. Other indicators used by practitioners include low urine output or high acid levels in the blood, which are also lagging indicators of shock. Because the Pulse Flowmeter directly measures changes in blood flow, it may provide the medical team with time to respond before the onset of shock.

Septic Shock – This is a condition associated with cardiovascular collapse and peripheral vasodilatation.  Although this application has yet to be tested in a research study, it may be that the vascular instability associated with septic shock may be accompanied by a decrease in blood flow hat might be detected early with the Pulse Flowmeter.    

Cardiogenic Shock - Patients in cardiogenic shock have decreased cardiac output and decreased peripheral vascular flow resulting in decreased peripheral flow.  The Pulse Flowmeter might be used clinically to detect cardiogenic shock and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. 

              Hemorrhagic Shock - Hemorrhagic shock occurs when
          significant blood loss (as described above) occurs with a
          concurrent reduction in pulse flow. The Pulse Flowmeter might
          be used clinically to detect hemorrhagic shock and to
          evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

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